Integration within the supply chain has often been described in terms of the challenges within a focal firm (intra-organisational) and between supply partners (inter-organisational). Stock et al. (2000) Stock, G. N., Greis, N. P. and Kasarda, J. D. 2000. Enterprise logistics and supply chain structure: the role of fit. J. Operations Mgmnt, 18: 531–547. argued that a "new and expanded role for logistics will be required in the new extended manufacturing enterprise". This new role "will place high priority on both inter-firm and intra-firm integration of logistics activities".
We were also concerned about the degree to which such considerations apply to intra-organisational relationships that impact on the supply chain. Anecdotal evidence, such as from Lynch (in Kirby 2003 Kirby, J. 2003. Supply chain challenges: building relationships. A conversation with Scott Beth, David N. Burt, William Copacino, Chris Gopal, Hau Lee, Robert Porter Lynch, and Sandra Morris. underpins this perspective: "the number one concern … wasn't creating strategic alliances with other companies,